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In this case, the Twitter profiles of the authors are available, but these consist of freeform text rather than fixed information fields.
And, obviously, it is unknown to which degree the information that is present is true.
172 For Tweets in Dutch, we first look at the official user interface for the Twi NL data set, Among other things, it shows gender and age statistics for the users producing the tweets found for user specified searches.
These statistics are derived from the users profile information by way of some heuristics.
The paper does not describe the gender component, but the first author has informed us that the accuracy of the gender recognition on the basis of 200 tweets is about 87% (Nguyen, personal communication). (2014) did a crowdsourcing experiment, in which they asked human participants to guess the gender and age on the basis of 20 to 40 tweets. on this, we will still take the biological gender as the gold standard in this paper, as our eventual goal is creating metadata for the Twi NL collection. Experimental Data and Evaluation In this section, we first describe the corpus that we used in our experiments (Section 3.1).
For our experiment, we selected 600 authors for whom we were able to determine with a high degree of certainty a) that they were human individuals and b) what gender they were.
We then experimented with several author profiling techniques, namely Support Vector Regression (as provided by LIBSVM; (Chang and Lin 2011)), Linguistic Profiling (LP; (van Halteren 2004)), and Ti MBL (Daelemans et al.
With only token unigrams, the recognition accuracy was 80.5%, while using all features together increased this only slightly to 80.6%. (2014) examined about 9 million tweets by 14,000 Twitter users tweeting in American English.
They used lexical features, and present a very good breakdown of various word types.